Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Testing Site that provide support for students with disabilities, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast or font size of an online test.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternative and Augmentative Communication
A term used to describe the different methods that can be used to help people with disabilities communicate with others. These methods can be used as either an alternative or a supplement to speech, and can include individual methods of sign and gestures, standardized signing, symbol systems, and complex electronic devices.
Alternative Computer Input Technology
Assistive tools that allow students with various impairments (such as physical and visual impairments) to interact with a computer without using a traditional mouse and keyboard setup.
Analysis
A set of CAI systems that process the student response data generated in the Test Delivery System (TDS) and prepare it for display in the Reporting system.
Annual Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
Appeal
A request to resolve a test impropriety (also known as a testing incident), which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as a test.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Reporting system that provide detailed student performance data for an individual test taken by an individual student or group of students.
Assistive Keyboard and Mouse Input Technology
Assistive tools that provide additional support to students with physical impairments who need to use a keyboard and mouse in order to respond to test items.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company devoted to student assessment. Owned by Cambium Learning Group.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google.
Chromebook
A laptop running Chrome OS.
Cluster
May refer to either of two things:
-A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
-A set of items or interactions within a single item that engages students in activity aligned to a specific standard.
Comma-Separated Values
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test item cannot be scored.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response
An item type that requires student to respond with a written, pictorial, or graphic answer.
Content
Used to refer to the the items and stimuli within a test, the reading passage or other media type within a stimulus, and the prompt and response area within an item.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Contracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses the same letters, punctuation and numbers as uncontracted braille, but adds a series of special signs to represent common words or groups of letters.
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Scores at or above that point are interpreted to mean something different from scores below that point. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score is sufficient, insufficient, almost sufficient, etc.

D

Data Entry Interface
A CAI system that allows educators to enter student performance data, such as a response or score, directly into a test form.
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Test Coordinator
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an entire district.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Drag-and-Drop Grid Item
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging a text or image object onto specified locations in a grid or image.

E

Edit Task
An item type that requires students to respond by editing words or phrases in a sentence.
Edit Task Inline Choice
An item type that requires students to respond by filling in the blank in a sentence by selecting options from an inline drop-down list.
Edit Task with Choice
An item type that requires students to respond by selecting replacement text for a word or phrase from a drop-down list.
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be able to take in TDS.
Embedded Accommodations
Any modifications provided digitally as components of the test administration system.
Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Testing Site that provide assistance in using the application to students testing with the appropriate accommodations.
End of Life
The projected date on which CAI plans to end the Test Delivery System's support for an operating system version.
English Learner
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Errors of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement (SEM). The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.
Evidence-Based Selected Response
An item type that requires students to answer a multi-part question related to an accompanying passage or information presented in the stem.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Exemption from Testing
The exemption of a student from a testing requirement to which others are held.
Expiration Rules
The rules that determine how long it takes a test opportunity to expire when a student starts it without completing it. Students cannot make any additional changes to a test opportunity once it expires.
Extended Answer
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Firewall
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Focused Interim Assessment Blocks
Assessments designed to assess no more than three assessment targets to provide educators with a more detailed understanding of student learning. They are more specific than IABs.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Form
A compilation of test items and/or stimuli that make up the segments of an assessment. Also known as a test form.
Formative Assessment
Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course.
Frequency-Distribution Report
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grade Band
Two or more consecutive grade levels (for example, grades 6 through 8).
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled or, for students not assigned a grade, the academic grade of same-age peers who are in a general education classroom.

H

Hand Scoring
The process of manually scoring test items.
Hot Spot
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking regions on an image, such as countries on a map.
Hot Text
An item type that requires students to click words or phrases in a section of text.

I

Image Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text or image elements onto a background image.
Individual Student Report
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Individualized Education Plan
A written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed and revised to reflect the decisions made by an interdisciplinary team, including the parent and student when appropriate.
Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
Invalidate a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
A scored question, exercise, or task on a test that students interact with to enter a response.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.
Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Match Item
An item type that requires students to respond by matching answer options together.
Mobile Secure Browser
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice
An item type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select
An item type that requires students to select one or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Non-Embedded Accommodations
Any modifications provided locally with human assistance.
Non-Participated Student Discrepancy
A discrepancy occurring when a student has not taken a test that they are eligible for at the time when discrepancy resolution opens. These discrepancies are resolved in TIDE.

O

Open Ended
An item type that requires students to type a response in a text box.
Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live testing, as distinct from practice testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.

P

Paper Order
Also known as a materials order. An order for paper-and-pencil test materials, such as question books and answer sheets. Paper orders can be managed in TIDE.
Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Report by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Performance on Tests Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a user's associated students.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Personally Identifying Information
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Portal
A website that serves as a one-stop shop for educators involved in the online assessment process, providing access to CAI systems, training sites, tutorials, and other resources.
Prefetch Item Rule
A setting in TDS that queues up a certain number of test items as students progress through the test to ensure there are no delays in testing.
PreID Label
A label affixed to a student’s physical testing materials, such as a paper answer booklet.
Prompt
The component of an item that provides students with the instructions or question they must respond to.

R

Re-open a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was completed, invalidated, or expired.
Reporting
A CAI system that provides comprehensive assessment performance reports for individual students and student groups, such as rosters and schools.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reset a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test), or allows the data entry operator to restart the data entry process.
Revert a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reverses a test reset, restoring the student responses that were on the test when the reset was processed.
Rigor
The term rigor is widely used by educators to describe instruction, schoolwork, learning experiences, and educational expectations that are academically, intellectually, and personally challenging.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

School Test Coordinator
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
School Year
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020 to 2021).
Score Input
An item type that is used for tests in which teachers or proctors enter a student's score directly into a test form.
Scoring Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.
Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Secure Student Identifier
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Short Answer
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Short Constructed Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Short Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Single Sign-On
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Speaking Response
An item type that requires students to respond by speaking into a microphone.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
State Administrator
A CAI system user role that may have access to any special administrative features available in a system.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Portfolio Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a particular student.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is also known as the Secure Browser.

T

Take a Test
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher
A CAI system user role, typically one that is associated with one or more rosters.
Technology-Enhanced Items
Test items that take advantage of the computer-based environment to present interactions and elicit responses in ways that may not be possible on a paper-based test.
Test
An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as an assessment.
Test Administration Site
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System
A set of CAI systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions and by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Site, the Student Testing Site, the Assessment Viewing Application, and the Data Entry Interface.
Test Form
A compilation of one or more test items and/or tasks that comprise the full test.
Test Impropriety
Any action or violation, whether deliberate or accidental, that would invalidate a test. Also known as a testing incident.
Test Information and Distribution Engine
A CAI system that allows educators to manage user and student information. It is responsible for student registration, gathering of demographic data, and materials ordering.
Test Label
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Status Code Report
A report available in TIDE that displays all the non-participation codes for a test administration.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes a student’s username for logging in to a test in TDS.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text elements into the blank spaces within a sentence or paragraph.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Uncontracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses cells of dots to represent individual letters, numbers, and symbols.
User
An educator who is able to access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

W

Word builder
An item type that requires students to respond by typing with an on-screen keyboard.
Writing Constructed Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing an answer in a text box.